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Leena Forma

Laurea University of Applied Sciences

Leena Forma

Leena Forma, PhD, Adjunct Professor (Docent), works as a senior researcher at Laurea University of Applied Sciences. She is also affiliated in Faculty of Social Sciences and Gerontology Research Center (GEREC), Tampere University and Centre of Excellence in Research on Ageing and Care (CoE AgeCare). Leena’s background is in health economics, especially economics of ageing.



Countries Finland;
Topics End-of-life care and LTC; Financing LTC; LTC Workforce; Residential LTC services; Unpaid / informal care;
Role Research;
Research interests

Use, costs and financing of care for older people. LTC and hospital use in the last two years of life, comparison of decedents and survivors.

Time trends, changes in care policy.

Methodology: register study, mixed methods.

Key publications

Ristolainen H, Forma L, Hawkins J, Tiilikainen E (2023) Study protocol of a mixed method pragmatic quasi-experimental trial to evaluate the day activity services targeted for older home care clients. BMC Geriatrics 22: 810.

Pirhonen J, Forma L, Pietilä I (2022) COVID-19 related visiting ban in nursing homes as a source of concern for residents’ family members: a cross sectional study. BMC Nursing 21: 255.

Bjornelv G, Hagen T, Forma L, Aas E (2022) Living situation, healthcare utilization and costs at the end-of-life for all cancer decedents in Norway. BMC Health Services Research 22: 1221. DOI:

Forma L, Jylhä M, Pulkki J, Aaltonen M, Raitanen J, Rissanen P (2017) Trends in the use and costs of round-the-clock long-term care in the last two years of life among old people between 2002 and 2013 in Finland. BMC Health Services Research 17: 668. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-017-2615-3

Aaltonen M, Forma L, Pulkki J, Raitanen J, Rissanen P, Jylhä M (2017) Changes in older people’s care profiles during the last two years of life, 1996-1998 and 2011-2013: a retrospective nationwide study in Finland. BMJ Open 2017: 7. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015130

Forma L, Aaltonen M, Pulkki J, Raitanen J, Rissanen P, Jylhä M (2017) Long-Term Care is Increasingly Concentrated in the Last Years of Life: A Change from 2000 to 2011. European Journal of Public Health 27, 665-669. DOI: